TESTS AS AN INDICATOR OF SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF OPTIMIZATION AND MODERNIZATION OF THE MACHINE AND TRACTOR FLEET

Abstract: The article confirms the relevance of the problem of updating, optimizing and modernizing the machine and tractor fleet. It is scientifically proven that these test systems can help enterprises improve economic efficiency and solve the problem of optimization and modernization, including through the use of domestic grain harvesters.

In modern conditions, the question of the need for cost-effective agricultural machinery that will sustainably and smoothly perform the technological process is a key one in the structure of the problems of the agro-industrial complex. At present, it is the high level of mechanization of agricultural production that can provide more than half of the economic and financial success of modern farmers. It is on the basis of a well-designed process of optimizing and modernizing the MTP, using qualitatively new criteria and methods for evaluating its effectiveness, that it is possible to achieve the maximum increase in the economic efficiency and rationality of the functioning of agricultural enterprises in the country.

Currently, the most relevant and objective information on this problem can be extracted by the producer or the head of the farm only based on the data of the machine testing system, which is the only independent source of information of the Ministry of Agriculture and agricultural Producers of Russia. In the context of the crisis and the economic blockade applied to Russia, the issue of implementing the Food Security Doctrine and the Import Substitution Program, which will change the paradigm of agricultural development and will be aimed at supporting organizations of all forms of ownership and activities, is particularly relevant.

Taking into account the new tasks of providing agricultural producers with high-performance equipment, the work of the Central Chernozem MIS encourages the improvement of the entire agricultural sector of Russia and the development of its own production system, primarily agricultural machinery for the cultivation, harvesting and processing of agricultural products.

Currently, the Central Chernozem MIS conducts tests for a balanced technical policy in the agro-industrial complex; for producers of agricultural products; for science and education; for the implementation of Federal laws and Regulations of the Government of the Russian Federation.

It is worth noting that modern agriculture puts forward strict requirements for uninterrupted operation, the main indicator of growth is agricultural machinery, machinery and equipment, and one of the criteria for assessing the state of the composition and structure is the availability of agricultural machinery on farms.

Touching upon the problem of updating the MTP, we can say that today manufacturers are not ready to pay money only for high performance, quality and reliability. They try to find the “golden mean” in technology in terms of the “price-quality” ratio.

Agricultural machinery is currently an effective tool for improving the economic efficiency of agricultural enterprises. To optimize the MTP at the expense of domestic equipment in this time period is the most rational, since, based on the test results, many economic parameters and quality indicators of domestic combine harvesters are competitive in the market. Their main advantage is the amount of capital investment and the cost of maintenance and depreciation for enterprises.

That is why an enterprise that is experiencing a shortage of agricultural grain harvesting equipment can be advised to purchase this equipment in the property. In the current economic conditions of the import substitution program, the annual savings in total costs per 1 unit under the optimization plan, which takes into account the purchase of domestic equipment, can reach 1-3 million rubles. And according to the plan, the purchased combine harvesters will be able to pay back in 3-5 years [2].

The technology on the basis of which it is possible to carry out the process of objectively profitable and cost-effective optimization with minimal costs can be attributed to the Muromets-1500 combine harvester (production of LLC PO “Muromets”). The above-mentioned equipment is currently competitive in the Russian market in comparison with foreign analogues of the same class.

Focusing on the Muromets-1500 combine harvester, it is worth noting that it was tested in the Volga region in the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Volga MIS”.

The new, modernized, productive, highly efficient combine “Muromets-1500” consists of a threshing machine, cleaning, straw-making machine, chassis, cabin with climate control, hopper, motor unit, drives, grain unloading system, hydraulic system and electrical equipment, process control system, inclined chamber, harvester for grain crops ZHU-6 – 6.0 m. The design of the combine provides for the possibility of aggregating and working with a reaper ZHU-7 with a width of 7.0 m, a reaper ZHZK-7-5 with a width of 7.0 m with an inclined chamber KZK-12-1810000, with a platform picker RSM-10.08.00.000, a device for harvesting rapeseed PR-7, sets of equipment for harvesting corn for grain KOK-6-2, a set of equipment for harvesting sunflower KOP-8-2, a reaper for soybeans ZHZS-7. The design of the combine has a central layout and fully meets the requirements of the system of safety standards. The work of the combine was evaluated on direct harvesting of spring wheat with a yield of 22.8 c / ha. During the tests, the moisture content of grain was 11%, straw-15.8%, clogging 6.6%. The total loss of grain for the combine-2%, grain crushing-0.74%, the content of weed admixture in the bunker grain-2%, which met the requirements of the technical specifications [4].

The availability factor for operational time is 0.99. Operational and technological evaluation of the harvester: average working speed of 5.8 km / h, working width of 6.7 m. The replacement productivity of the combine is 2.76 ha / h (6.29 t/h). The combine harvester reliably performs the technological process with a quality that meets the requirements of the technical specifications and ND for all agrotechnical indicators and has satisfactory operational and technological indicators [4].

The main advantages of the combine are the upgraded sieve mills – the cleaning sieves are divided into two halves, easily removed and installed, without an extension cord. The combine uses a modern belt tensioning system “Sprint”, a reinforced frame and a mesh fence for pulleys and belt drives are installed instead of hoods.

The “Muromets-1500″ combine harvester has a well-proven and successfully passed state tests of the Novator Plus cleaning system. The hopper, which is not symmetrical in the longitudinal plane, is upgraded so that, while remaining in its landing recess, its center of gravity moves forward along the course, while the unloading and loading augers remain in their places. The combine harvester has a conventional engine with a one-way power output, which is much cheaper than the original DON-1500 combine harvester. All external power drives have been removed from the engine for the pumps of the NSH-hydraulic system and steering. All consumers are driven from the transfer pulley block. This greatly facilitates not only the maintenance of the engine, but also provides the possibility of its rapid replacement, even in the field.

Table 3. Technical and economic indicators ” Muromets-1500»

№ п/п

Наименование показателя

Значение показателя

1

Пропускная способность, кг/с

9,8

2

Рабочая скорость, км/ч

До 10

3

Ширина захвата жатки, м

6; 7

4

Марка двигателя

ЯМЗ-238М2

5

Номинальная мощность кВт (л.с.)

176 (240)

6

Производительность по зерну, т/ч

14,1

7

Масса с жаткой 7м., кг

12 710

8

Граничная урожайность с жаткой 7м., ц/га

28

9

Эксплуатационные затраты, р/ч

3323

*актуально только на момент проведения испытаний

 

Despite the difficult agricultural conditions and weather conditions of the 2014 harvest season in the Volga region, the harvester demonstrated high performance indicators, confirmed by the test report of the “Volga MIS”.

By simplifying the design and improving maintainability, operating costs are reduced by about 2.0 times, which reduces the cost of harvesting operations and increases the efficiency and competitiveness of national agricultural producers.

Thus, competent and qualified optimization of MTP based on domestic equipment, in particular the above-mentioned combine harvesters, is able to solve practical problems of increasing production efficiency with increasing productivity and reducing costs and product losses, and reduce the overall level of wear and tear of agricultural machinery [3]. The current economic situation in our country puts the economy in such a framework that enterprises and organizations need only such advantages that will allow organizations to ensure total dominance in the competition. The availability of cost-effective equipment in the MTP is certainly an advantage.

Artem A. Borisov, Deputy Director of the Central Chernozem MIS, Postgraduate student of the Kursk State Agricultural Academy»

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ИСПЫТАНИЯ КАК ИНДИКАТОР РЕШЕНИЯ ПРОБЛЕМЫ ОПТИМИЗАЦИИ И МОДЕРНИЗАЦИИ МАШИННО-ТРАКТОРНОГО ПАРКА

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